By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)
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Additional info for Animal Learning and Cognition
Cognitive processes in animal behavior (pp. 177-209). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Wagner, A. , & B r a n d o n , S. E. (1989). Evolution of a structured connectionist model of Pavlovian conditioning ( A E S O P ) . In S. B. Klein & R. R. ), Contemporary learning theories: Pavlovian conditioning and the status of traditional learning theory (pp. 1 4 9 189). Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A. , & Larew, M . B. (1985). O p p o n e n t processes and Pavlovian inhibition. In R. R. Miller & N .
What follows is that learning about Β should occur normally on this first trial. , Balaz, Kasprow, Sc Miller, 1982; Dickinson, Nicholas, & Mackintosh, 1983). In order to accommodate all the results, therefore, it is necessary to allow that the training procedures used in blocking experiments induce changes both in C S and U S effective ness. T h e principles governing changes in U S effectiveness have already been discussed; w e turn n o w to those governing C S effectiveness. 2. Mechanisms Perhaps the most elegant account of the mechanisms involved in changing C S effectiveness is that put forward by Wagner (first proposed by Wagner, 1978, but retained in some form in later versions of his theory).
G.. Mackintosh, 1975; Pearce & Hall, 1980) is that the animal fails to learn about the added Β stimulus because it quickly learns to ignore an event that supplies n o information that A does not about the outcome of an A B trial. In the Rescorla-Wagner model, blocking occurs because of a loss of effec^ At least in n o n h u m a n subjects; C h a p m a n and R o b b i n s (1990) have recently presented s o m e evidence of a b a c k w a r d effect in h u m a n subjects trained on a task in s o m e respect analogous to those used,in the study o f Pavlovian conditioning in animals.