Algae by Linda E. Graham

By Linda E. Graham

present, complete, and comfortably available to all readers despite their wisdom at the topic, this information-packed source on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial algae kinds specializes in what humans really need to know approximately algae—why they're so different; how they're similar; the way to distinguish the most important kinds; their roles in foodstuff webs, worldwide biogeochemical biking; the formation of destructive algae bloom; and the way we make the most of them. presents a stimulating evaluate of the significance of algae. Covers biotic institutions regarding algae, with discussions on herbivory interactions, algal foodstuff caliber, symbioses, pathogeneic interactions, and extra. Considers the commercial, ecological, and biotechnological functions of algae, and offers entire assurance on algal biodiversity, class platforms, molecular phylogenetics, and alertness of molecular details to ecological difficulties. bargains an in depth examine on endosymbiosis. and contains extensive, stand-alone chapters on cryptomonads, dinoflagellates, ochrophytes, purple algae, eco-friendly algae, and phytoplankton ecology. Covers new analytical recommendations (i.e. molecular phylogenetics, DNA-based methods to the learn of existence cycles, and fluorescence tools for the examine for photosynthesis); integrates many attention-grabbing boxed essays; and complements fabric with quite a few images and illustrations. For researchers and execs within the fields of aquatic ecology and technological program of algae.

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Phylum Glaucophyta (the glaucophytes) includes several eukaryotes having blue-green plastids (known as cyanelles or cyanellae) that differ from other plastids and resemble cyanobacteria in several ways, including the possession of a thin peptidoglycan wall. The cyanelles/plastids possess chlorophyll a and phycobilins, as well as carotenoids. Granules of true starch (an a-1,4-glucan) are produced in the cytoplasm. There are about nine genera, all freshwater. At least 20 Algae one of these is a flagellate, and nonflagellate forms (unicells and colonies) typically produce flagellate asexual reproductive cells.

Transformation of extracellular bicarbonate into C0 2 in the periplasmic space is therefore advantageous for algal cells, as is cytoplasmic entrapment of C0 2 by conversion to bicarbonate. Similarly, chloroplast CA may function to trap bicarbonate within the organelle and to regenerate C0 2 in the vicinity of Rubisco when it is needed for fixation. It should be noted that these models are largely untested. (After Badger and Price, 1994, with permission of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, Volume 45.

Pigmentation is usually golden brown, reflecting the common occurrence of the unique accessory xanthophyll peridinin, but green and other colors are known. True starch granules occur in the cytoplasm. The cell covering is a peripheral layer of membrane-bound vesicles, which in many cases enclose cellulosic plates. Of the 2000-4000 species, the vast majority are marine; only about 220 freshwater forms are recognized. Symbiotic dinoflagellates known as zooxanthellae occur in reef-forming corals and other marine invertebrates.

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