Advances in Disease Vector Research, 1st Edition by Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris

By Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)

This sequence explores how vectors (carriers of illness brokers, resembling bugs) collect, hold and as a result transmit pathogens to hosts. It covers the spectrum of vectors, together with companies of plant pathogens in addition to medically comparable pathogens. The Chapters in quantity 7 comprise: 1. K. Gibb, J.W. Randles: Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and similar viruses by means of the mirid Cyrto- peltis nicotianae. 2. N. Carter, R. Harrington: components influencing aphid inhabitants dynamics and behaviour and the results for virus unfold. three. R.H. Bagnall: Cyclic epidemics of aphid-borne potato viruses in Northern seed-potato-growing parts. four. C.J. Andrews, R.C. Sinha: Interactions among barley yellow dwarf virus an infection and winter-stress tolerance in cereals. five. J.R. DeLoach, G. Spates: synthetic diets for blood feeding bugs: a assessment. 6. I. Maudlin: Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions between Tsetse immune procedure, symbionts, and parasites. 7. C. Chastel, I. Humphery-Smith: Mosquito spiroplasmas. the 1st 4 chapters disguise issues in plant virus transmission through bugs. the ultimate 3 chapters specialise in human and animal illness institutions with bollid-feeding flies.

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Presumably, increased frequency of phloem penetration and stylet retraction contributes to increased transmission . The duration of probing is longer at lower temperatures, and which also results in a decrease in transmission of nonpersistent viruses (97, 131). The proportion of probes by M. persicae lasting more than a minute increased above and below 21°C (106). This relates to the reduced efficiency of transmission of the nonpersistent cabbage mosaic virus (CMV) (also known as Turnip Mosaic Virus) at these temperatures, with maximum acquisition occurring 2.

Carter and R. Harrington Low-level jet winds have been associated with the spread of BYDV by S. graminum in Wisconsin (77). In 1959, late planting of oats, due to an unusually cold and wet April, meant that crops were young and favorable for aphid multiplication in May and June at the time when airborne populations were arriving. Hodson & Cook (59) reported S. graminum in adjacent Minnesota at the same time and attributed their arrival to winds carrying them from states further south where large populations had developed.

Acquisition is followed by a latent period before the virus can be inoculated to another plant. The aphid then usually remains infective for the remainder of its life. The virus either may replicate (propagative) or not within the aphid. Propagative viruses are sometimes transmitted directly to the offspring of the infected vector and all persistent viruses are retained through molts. A nonpersistent virus can be acquired by an aphid probing on an infected plant for only a few seconds, or minutes, whereas probes of longer duration often decrease the efficiency of transmission.

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