By Richard D. Bardgett
Aboveground-Belowground Linkages presents the main up to date and finished synthesis of modern advances in our knowing of the jobs that interactions among aboveground and belowground groups play in regulating the constitution and serve as of terrestrial ecosystems, and their responses to worldwide swap. It charts the historic improvement of this box of ecology and evaluates what may be realized from the hot proliferation of stories at the ecological and biogeochemical importance of aboveground-belowground linkages.
The publication is based round 4 key themes: biotic interactions within the soil; plant group results; the function of aboveground shoppers; and the impact of species profits and losses. A concluding bankruptcy attracts jointly this data and identifies a few cross-cutting topics, together with attention of aboveground-belowground feedbacks that ensue at diverse spatial and temporal scales, the implications of those feedbacks for atmosphere techniques, and the way aboveground-belowground interactions hyperlink to human-induced international change.
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Additional resources for Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)
Likewise, it was suggested by Connell and Lowman (1989) that in tropical rainforests, ectomycorrhizal fungal associations can encourage dominance of particular tree species at the expense of other (arbuscular mycorrhizal) tree species which are less able to acquire nutrients and tolerate pathogen attack, thereby reducing species coexistence. These studies point to an alternative mechanism through which mycorrhizal fungi can inﬂuence plant communities. Here, differences in host plant responses to fungal colonization by mycorrhizal fungi can result in changes in plant diversity if the dominant competitors are either more strongly or more weakly mycotrophic than are their neighbours.
Here, as in other seasonal ecosystems, it has traditionally been assumed that soil microbes are inactive during the winter. However, it has recently been shown that the biomass of microbes 20 • 2 Biotic interactions as ecosystem drivers in alpine soils is maximal during late winter when the soil is frozen (Schadt et al. 2003), and that seasonal changes in microbial biomass are associated with shifts in microbial community composition (Lipson and Schmidt 2004). Speciﬁcally, fungi that utilize complex plant residues dominate in the winter, whereas bacteria that thrive on root exudates are more active in the summer (Lipson and Schmidt 2004).
2007), but as far as we are aware remains untested. As discussed above, microbes can inﬂuence ecosystem nitrogen availability and hence plant productivity by rapid transformation of nitrogen to more mobile forms, such as nitrate through the bacterial process of nitriﬁcation, and through denitriﬁcation whereby nitrate is lost to the atmosphere as nitrogen gases under anaerobic conditions. Both these microbial processes cause net loss of nitrogen from soil, especially in ecosystems such as humid tropical forests and fertilized agricultural systems with high mineral nitrogen availability.